The Russian Revolution For all who are serious in their activity, a study of Leon Trotsky's History of the Russian revolution is absolutely essential.
An upswing of capitalism producing reformist illusions.
This was the great contribution of Trotsky in this work, which should be studied by all activists who are serious about changing capitalist society into a socialist one as the only guarantee for the future of the planet and therefore of humanity.
These intermediate layers, referred to by Marxists as the petite bourgeoisie, had been long convinced that their social well being lay in the hands of the ruling class and that their interests were synonymous with the interests of the ruling class. He shows how modern methods of capitalist production created huge factories in the cities but that these existed alongside feudal property relationships of serfdom.
More recently, scholars like Jeff Colgan have argued that Polity, which measures the degree of democratic or autocratic authority in a state's governing institutions based on the openness of executive recruitment, constraints on executive authority, and political competition, is inadequate because it measures democratization, not revolution, and fails to account for regimes which come to power by revolution but fail to change the structure of the state and society sufficiently to yield a notable difference in Polity score.
Marx's work on the Paris Commune ofLenin's writings on State and Revolution and Trotsky's analyses of the and revolutions in Russia, stand out as classics that need to be studied by revolutionaries if they are serious about changing the nature of the society that we live in.
In doing so he draws the conclusion that the tasks of the bourgeois-democratic revolution - land reform, destruction of the economic and political power of the feudal aristocracy, the establishment of democratic rights, national independence, etc.