Domesticity as a tool for fulfillment
One estimate says that, with the growth of public education in the northern tier of states, one-quarter of all native-born Massachusetts women in the years between and were schoolteachers at some point in their lives.
Women's complete financial dependence upon their husbands proved disastrous, however, when wives lost their husbands through death or desertion and were forced to fend for themselves and their children.
It also equated womanhood with motherhood and being a wife, declaring that the "perfection of womanhood She also twice underwent psychoanalysis, first in the s and again in the s, which she found immensely helpful.
Virtues of womanhood
Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. She also twice underwent psychoanalysis, first in the s and again in the s, which she found immensely helpful. Historian Susan M. McKeon is similarly attentive to how literary forms evoked a tangible sense of public-private relations—among them figurative imagery, allegorical narration, parody, the author-character-reader dialectic, aesthetic distance, and free indirect discourse. Moreover, whereas Friedan clearly wanted to recover and celebrate the history of the suffrage movement, she did not argue that a new generation should take up the unfinished work of these political foremothers. McKeon accounts for how the relationship between public and private experience first became intelligible as a variable interaction of distinct modes of being—not a static dichotomy, but a tool to think with. Treating that relation as a crucial instance of the modern division of knowledge, Michael McKeon narrates its pre-history along with that of its essential component, domesticity. Fashion was also stressed because a woman had to stay up to date in order to please her husband. With the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of , which outlawed discrimination in employment based on race, colour, religion, sex or national origin, American women had unexpectedly gained a new tool to challenge inequality in the workforce — a tool that many had readily seized. Yet, Friedan always differentiated between Freudian theory and its clinical application, and her disdain for popularized Freudianism never translated into a wholesale rejection of psychoanalytic therapy or psychological Harrington in the Ladies' Companion. In the s television shows often presented series that depicted fictional families in which the mother's primary work was to raise the children and run the household. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States.
The remaking of the private life was central to this era. Opposition to those ideas influenced the second wave of feminism.
Women that did enter into professional fields were under intense scrutiny for going against the feminine domestic ideal. Submission — True women were required to be as submissive and obedient "as little children" because men were regarded as women's superiors "by God's appointment".
Purity — Virginity, a woman's greatest treasure, must not be lost until her marriage night, and a married woman had to remain committed only to her husband.
The care of her home supposedly made her feminine, and she depended on men to protect her within the shelter of it. Cooking, needlework, making beds, and tending flowers were considered naturally feminine activities, whereas reading anything other than religious biographies was discouraged. Within the home, however, they gained symbolic power. Catharine Beecher , who proselytised about the importance of education and parenting, once said, "Woman's great mission is to train immature, weak, and ignorant creatures [children] to obey the laws of God She also proposed the notion of a government programme similar to the GI Bill to provide assistance to homemakers wanting to return to school — Oregon , were based on the assumption that women's primary role was that of mother and wife, and that women's non-domestic work should not interfere with their primary function. Arguments of significant biological differences between the genders and often of female inferiority led to pronouncements that women were incapable of effectively participating in the realms of politics, commerce, or public service. Friedan did, however, explore the ways in which businesses benefitted from the media construct of the ideal American housewife. Historian Daniel Horowitz has theorized that Friedan purposefully sought to mask this chapter of her past, fearing not unreasonably that critics would try to discredit her and her arguments by accusing her of communist sympathies. Domesticity — A woman's proper place was in the home and her role as a wife was to create a refuge for her husband and children. Women were seen as better suited to parenting. Wages were low and there was little room for advancement. Women's complete financial dependence upon their husbands proved disastrous, however, when wives lost their husbands through death or desertion and were forced to fend for themselves and their children.
At the same time, women had independent lives during the day and were often active in volunteer and community activities, particularly around issues of education, health, children, and welfare. But most of the chapter consists of stories of remarkable women who had independently figured out ways to pursue fulfilling careers without forgoing marriage and motherhood.
based on 14 review