Ethical pluralism essays

Sen eds. Both traditions invoke notions of resonance and harmony to articulate pluralistic structures of connection alongside irreducible differences. We can work out trade-offs between different dimensions of pleasure or happiness. Thus, even though pluralists by definition do not accept one fundamental unifying principle, they are not thereby stuck viewing moral norms as an unconnected heap.

Kekesfor example, claims that pluralism enables us to see that irresolvable disagreements are not due to wickedness on the part of our interlocutor, but may be due to the plural nature of values. In this vein, pluralist moral theorist Bernard Gert offers the following generic account of moral norms: Morality is an informal public system applying to all rational persons, governing behavior that affects others, and has the lessening of evil or harm as its goal.

Political authority and all laws are assumed unjustified until shown otherwise.

Ethical pluralism essays

Privacy: An Intercultural Perspective. I shall not pursue further the question whether or not Griffin is a foundational pluralist, my aim in this section is to show first, that monist preference satisfaction accounts of value may have more compelling ways of explaining complexities in value comparison than monist goods approaches, but second, to point out that any constrained desire account may well actually be foundationally pluralist. This is because certain human values, by their very nature, come into conflict with other, equally valid, human values. Preview Unable to display preview. It would also take a lot of work to go from moral pluralism to most other plausible political theories. Gerth and C. Remember, in their view, nonlibertarian conclusions are ultimately grounded in commonsense moral ideas as well. Bernard Williams argues that it is a mistake to think that pluralism implies that comparisons are impossible. It would be rather surprising if we could derive a political philosophy directly out of a basic moral theory, without having to first study economics and political science to learn how institutions actually function. Moral norms make it possible for us to live together well. Another, complementary strategy that the monist can pursue is to argue that monism has theoretical virtues that pluralism lacks. Imagine a one person preference satisfaction account of value that says simply that what is valuable is what P desires.

According to Stocker these comparisons are not quantitative, they are evaluative: Suppose we are trying to choose between lying on a beach and discussing philosophy—or more particularly, between the pleasure of the former and the gain in understanding from the latter.

Finally, pluralists must explain how comparisons between values are made, or defend the consequence that incommensurability is widespread.

We could say that all of the moral theories discussed in this book are different conceptions of morality, but each of the theorists should share the same concept of morality. He then applies that principle dogmatically to every moral issue.

pluralist approach to ethics

However, Cohen and I disagree about what a perfectly just society would be like. They might be right!

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Ethical Pluralism